Airborne Home Airborne Honey 100 years of Airborne


Pollen Analysis


References on Pollen Analysis - In order of Author - 1986 onwards
Abell-DC; Friebe-H; Schweger-C; Kwok-ASK; Sporns-P
Comparison of processed unifloral clover and canola honey.
Apidologie. 1996, 27: 6, 451-460; Bj.

Although clover honey is generally considered to be superior to canola [rape] honey, the differences, if any, in the processed product are unknown. Unifloral clover and canola honey were identified by pollen analysis: the canola honey contained 91.3% Brassicaceae pollen, with only 4.5% clover pollen, while the clover honey contained 94.5% Trifolium pollen, with no Brassicaceae pollen. The 2 honeys were processed under the same conditions to produce liquid honey. Processed honey samples were all similar in physical properties and carbohydrate composition. Storage at 14°C resulted in all samples starting to crystallize after approximately the same time of storage. Storage temperature and percentage moisture were more important factors in predicting crystallization than floral source. Although untrained sensory panellists could differentiate the processed clover and canola honey by taste there was no overall preference for either honey. DE: rape-; sugars-; flavour-; honey-; characteristics-; composition-; carbohydrates-; crystallization-; storage- OD: Trifolium-; Brassica-napus; Brassica-napus-var.-oleifera GE: Canada- BT: Papilionoideae; Fabaceae; Fabales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Brassica; Brassicaceae; Capparidales; Brassica-napus; OECD-Countries; Commonwealth-of-Nations; Developed-Countries; North-America; America CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality PT: Journal-article IS: 0044-8435 UD: 971016
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Alamanni,-M-C; Cossu,-M; Sanna,-F
[HPLC method for determination of oxalic acid, lactic acid and formic acid used as acaricides and present as natural constituents of honey.]
Rivista-di-Scienza-dell'Alimentazione. 2000; 29(2): 139-147 ; 13 ref.
2000

Oxalic, lactic and formic acids may be present in honey as minor natural constituents, and may be used as acaricides to control the mite Varroa jacobsoni. An HPLC method for determination of these acids in honey is described, based on dissolving honey in water, purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) anion exchange, and analysis by HPLC on an Alltech OA-1000 organic acids column with 0.025N H2SO4 mobile phase and detection at 210 nm. Recovery was 91.3-94.5%; detection limit was 1.88-6.37 mg/l. Results for oxalic acid were comparable with those by a published enzymic method. The HPLC method was applied to analysis of 49 samples of honey from a range of locations in N. Sardinia. Declared botanical origin of the honeys were checked by pollen analysis, and concn. of oxalic, lactic and formic acids were determined. Pollen analyses agreed with declared botanical origin for approx. 80% of samples. All samples contained the 3 organic acids studied; concn. varied between honeys of different botanical origin.SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Amoako-J
Apiculture in Ghana and the use of palynology to determine the renewable resources exploited by the honeybee Apis mellifera adansonii.
1997, xxi + 408 pp. + 146 pl.; Bdo. PB: University of Wales, Cardiff; UK

Questionnaires were sent to 50 beekeepers in Ghana. The 37 who replied were generally over 30, predominantly male, highly educated, and they regarded beekeeping as an important source of income. They had acquired training, used mainly the Kenyan top bar hive, involved labour and harvested honey between December and March, and September and December, using straining and pressing extraction techniques. They had 6 or more hives and each colony produced 5-50 kg of honey, priced between 500 and 4000 Ghanaian cedis. Honey was predominantly used for food and medicine. The beekeepers were enthusiastic and satisfied with their beekeeping. They required assistance with container provision, marketing of beeswax, financial and technical help, and the provision of beekeeping equipment. A total of 399 pollen types belonging to 59 families, collected from the herbarium and the field, were described, measured, photographed and documented. Nectar sources for honey bees (Apis mellifera adansonii) were investigated by pollen analysis of 47 honey samples collected after the major and minor flows in 7 regions within 4 vegetational zones in Ghana, in 1994. Pollen sources were investigated by pollen analysis of bee bread. A total of 255 plant species belonging to 56 families were identified from plants acting as nectar and/or pollen sources. The most common nectar sources in order of decreasing rate of occurrence were: Elaeis guineense, Tridax procumbens, Panicum maximum, Ceiba pentandra, Mimosa
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Andrada-A; Valle-A; Aramayo-E; Lamberto-S; Cantamutto-M
pollen analysis of honeys from the Austral Mountains, Buenos Aires province, Argentine.OT: Analisis polinico de las mieles de las Sierras Australes de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Investigacion-Agraria,-Produccion-y-Proteccion-Vegetales. 1998, 13: 3, 265-275; 43 ref.
1998

pollen analysis was carried out on 34 honey samples from Puan, Cnel. Pringles, Cnel. Suarez, Saavedra and Tornquist Districts, collected in 1993-94. Thirty one morphological types of pollen were identified to the closest possible taxon. The predominant pollen types were Eucalyptus spp., Helianthus annuus and Diplotaxis tenuifolia. Seven samples could be unifloral (Eucalyptus), 8 samples could be bifloral and 19 could have a mixed floral origin. Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Brassicaceae were the most represented families.
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Bastos-EM; Brandao-M
Inventory of bee plants in Barao de Cocais, Minas Gerais. 3. OT: Inventario da flora apicola do Municipio de Barao de Cocais, Minas Gerais - III.
Daphne,-Revista-do-Herbario-PAMG-da-EPAMIG. 1994, 4: 4, 54-60; Bc.

A list of 32 taxa identified by pollen analysis of 13 samples of honey is given, and 25 pollen grains are illustrated. Observations of bees foraging in this area of Brazil showed that 57 species of plants were visited, 5 (Poaceae) exclusively for pollen. DE: honey-bee-forage; honey-; pollen-analysis GE: Brazil- BT: Developing-Countries; Latin-America; South-America; America; Threshold-Countries CC: LL010; PP720 CD: Beekeeping-and-Bees; Biological-Resources-Plant PT: Journal-article UD: 970716
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Behm,-F; Ohe,-K-von-der; Henrich,-W
Zuverlaessigkeit der Pollenanalyse von Honig.Reliability of pollen analysis in honey.
Deutsche-Lebensmittel-Rundschau. 1996; 92(6): 183-188 ; 17 ref.
1996

Pollen grain frequency counting may be used for assessment of accuracy of label declaration of the flower type of honeys. Collaborative trials on a range of honeys were conducted with the pollen counting procedures specified in the Methods of Melissopalynology issued by the International Commission for Bee Botany. Results of light microscopy studies, at levels of 100, 300, 500 or 1000 pollen grains examined, were analysed statistically. Decrease of scatter with increasing number of pollen grains counted depended on the difficulty of identification of pollen grain types. For the honey types studied, this improvement in reproducibility with increasing number of pollen grains counted followed a power law. This also applied to comparability, except for honeys containing pollen grains which are hard to differentiate. It is concluded that this method is suitable for quantification of proportions of individual pollen types in honey samples; at least 300 pollen grains should be counted, and, for greater precision, 500-1000 for more exact results.
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Cabrera-Ruiz-C; Montilla-Gomez-J; Guerra-Hernandez-E; Molins-Marin-JL
Physico-chemical analysis of orange honeys sold in Spain. OT: Analyse physico-chimique des miels d'oranger commercialises en Espagne.
Bulletin-Technique-Apicole. 1997, 24: 2, 63-70; Bj.
1997

The 22 samples of orange honey obtained in Spain were analysed for water content, glucose, fructose, sucrose, disaccharides, trisaccharides, oligosaccharides, proline, minerals, electrical conductivity, acidity (total, free, lactone), HMF, diastase activity, and colour and clarity. pollen analysis showed that amounts of Citrus pollen varied from 0.1% to 62% of the total; other pollens found included Eucalyptus spp., Echium plantagineum, Olea europaea, Lavandula multifida, Raphanus raphanistrum and Quercus coccifera. The 8 honeys with < 10% Citrus pollen could not be regarded as orange honey. Most samples had not been excessively heated, but the fructose:glucose ratio indicated that 8 samples were over a year old. Correlations between some parameters are described and results are compared with those obtained in previous studies. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis; characteristics-; composition- OD: Citrus- GE: Spain- BT: Rutaceae; Sapindales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Southern-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality PT: Journal-article IS: 0335-3710 UD: 980716 ______________________________

Carreira-LMM; Jardim-MAG
pollen analysis of honeys from some municipalities of Para State: 2. OT: Analise polinica dos meis de alguns municipios do estado do Para - II.
Boletim-do-Museu-Paraense-Emilio-Goeldi.-Serie-Botanica. 1994, 10: 1, 83-89; Ba.
1994

Pollen analyses are presented for honeys from 4 municipalities of Para State in northern Brazil. Mimosa pudica pollen was dominant in 2 of the honeys; a total of 24 pollen types were identified. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis; honey-bee-forage OD: Mimosa-pudica GE: Brazil- BT: Mimosa; Mimosoideae; Fabaceae; Fabales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Developing-Countries; Latin-America; South-America; America; Threshold-Countries CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce PT: Journal-article UD: 980716
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Costa-MC; Decolatti-N; Godoy-F
pollen analysis of honeys from the north of San Luis province (Argentina). OT: Analisis polinico en mieles del norte de la provincia de San Luis (Argentina).
Kurtziana. 1995, 24: 133-143; Bb.
1995

Honeys from 19 apiaries were analysed; 13 of the 19 samples belonged to Maurizio's Class II. Dominant pollens were from plant species belonging to the Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Zygophyllaceae and Verbenaceae families. Nine of the honeys were unifloral. DE: nectar-plants; honey-; pollen-analysis; honey-bee-forage OD: Fabaceae-; Myrtaceae-; Zygophyllaceae-; Verbenaceae-; Lamiales- GE: Argentina- BT: Fabales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Myrtales; Sapindales; Threshold-Countries; Developing-Countries; Latin-America; South-America; America; Geraniales CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce PT: Journal-article IS: 0075-7314 UD: 970716 ______________________________

Debbagh-S
Relationships between species foraged by the honeybee, Apis mellifera intermissa, and plant-association surveys in south Morocco. OT: Rapports entre les especes butinees par l'abeille Apis mellifera var. intermissa et les releves phytosociologiques dans le Sud-Marocain.
Travaux-et-Documents-de-Geographie-Tropicale. 1987, No.59, 44; Bc.
1987

Four honey samples from 3 sites in south Morocco were obtained in January (honey from Euphorbiaceae), May (lavender honey) and July (thyme honey). In January, in the rainy season, hives are taken to the slopes of mountains bordering the sea, where the vegetation is xerophilous and rich in Euphorbiaceae. pollen analysis showed that honey from this site was derived in part from several stands of Eucalyptus. The 2 thyme honeys analysed, from 2 different regions, both contained about 20 types of pollen, but the floral composition was different and was related to the plant association in the area. The honey with the greatest proportion of thyme pollen was also the one with the largest total number of pollen grains. Samples taken in 2 successive seasons at the same site showed that the flowering of trees and shrubs (Argania spinosa, Cistus villosus, Oleaceae, etc.) was followed by the flowering of other shrubs and herbaceous species (Asteraceae, Papilionaceae, Plantago sp., Eryngium). Honeybees appeared to exploit a large number of entomophilous flowers in every season and the representations of their pollens in honey corresponded closely to their relative abundance in the local plant population.D.G. Lowe. DE: HONEY-BEE-FORAGE; Honey-; pollen-analysis GE: Morocco- BT: Maghreb; North-Africa; Africa; Mediterranean-Countries CC: LL010; QQ070 CD: Beekeeping-and-Bees; Other-Produce PT: Journal-article UD: 950316 ______________________________

Diez,-M-J; Andres,-C; Terrab,-A
Physicochemical parameters and pollen analysis of Moroccan honeydew honeys.
International-Journal-of-Food-Science-&-Technology. 2004; 39(2): 167-176 ; 46 ref.
2004

Honeydew indicators in 152 honeys from Morocco were investigated, in order to obtain information about the origin of the honeys. The main honeydew indicators in honey are mycelia and fungal spores and, in general, these were found in small percentages. 5 mixed or forest honey samples were found by a sediments study, with a proportion of honeydew elements/number of pollen grains from nectariferous species of 1.04-1.83. Their origin (floral or honeydew) could not be confirmed in all cases by the physicochemical parameters analysed (pH, mineral content, electrical conductivity, sugars and colour), but recommendations for their characterization are presented.SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Diez-MJ; Andres-C; Terrab-A
Physicochemical parameters and pollen analysis of Moroccan honeydew honeys.
International-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology. 2004, 39: 2, 167-176; 46 ref.
2004

The honeydew elements in 152 honeys from Morocco were studied. The main honeydew indicators are mycelia and fungal spores and, generally speaking, they were found in small percentages. Five mixed or forest honey samples were found by a sediments study, with a proportion of honeydew elements/number of pollen grains from nectariferous species of 1.04-1.83. Their origin (floral or honeydew) could not be confirmed in all cases by physicochemical parameters (pH, mineral content, electrical conductivity, sugars and colour) that were analysed, but recommendations for their characterization are presented.
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Dustmann-JH
From the work of the Bee Research Institute for Lower Saxony, Celle [Germany]. 1996 Annual Report. OT: Aus der Arbeit des Niedersachsischen Landesinstitutes fur Bienenkunde, Celle. Jahresbericht 1996.
Deutsches-Bienen-Journal. 1997, 5: 6, 27-38; Bj.
1997

Work in the various fields is summarized including: beekeeping practice, honey analyses, pollen analysis, rearing, bee diseases and pests, wild bees. Publications by staff are listed. DE: beekeeping-; research-institutes GE: Germany- BT: Western-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; OECD-Countries CC: LL010 CD: Beekeeping-and-Bees PT: Annual-report; Journal-article IS: 0943-2914 UD: 980416
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Floris-I; Prota-R; Fadda-L
Quantitative pollen analysis of typical Sardinian honeys. OT: Analisi melissopalinologica quantitativa di mieli tipici sardi.
Apicoltore-Moderno. 1996, 87: 4, 161-167; Bj.
1996

Results are presented for 87 multifloral and 63 unifloral honeys. They show that the most common pollen types are underrepresented (Arbutus, Asphodelus, Galactites, Carduus, Lavandula, Rosmarinus). The first 3 species yield the most important unifloral honeys, but the pollen contents in these honeys were very variable, so a characteristic range which would serve to identify the botanical source cannot be proposed. DE: honey-; honey-bee-forage; types-; pollen-analysis OD: Arbutus-; Asphodelus-; Carduus-; Lavandula-; Lamiales- GE: Italy-; Sardinia- ID: Galactites; Rosmarinnus BT: Ericaceae; Ericales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Liliaceae; Liliales; monocotyledons; Asteraceae; Asterales; Lamiaceae; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries; Southern-Europe; Europe; Italy CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce PT: Journal-article IS: 0518-1259 UD: 971016
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Garcia,-M; Perez-Arquillue,-C; Juan,-T; Juan,-M-I; Herrera,-A
pollen analysis and antibacterial activity of Spanish honeys.
Food-Science-and-Technology-International/Ciencia-y-Tecnologia-de-Alimentos-Internacional. 2001; 7(2): 155-158 ; 24 ref.
2001

Antibacterial activity of 25 samples of honey from different botanical origins was evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was used as the test microorganism. pollen analysis revealed different botanical origins: Labiatae, rosemary, eucalyptus, heather and multifloral. pH and acidity values were in the normal range, except for 4 samples that showed acidity values >40 m-equiv./kg, but none exhibited a state of fermentation. No correlation was found between antibacterial activity and free acidity in the samples. Labiatae and rosemary honeys exhibited the greatest inhibition against S. aureus, in contrast to heather honeys, which showed lowest inhibition against this microorganism. These results may indicate the presence of antimicrobial agents in Labiatae and rosemary honeys that inhibit growth of S. aureus. Likewise, the free acids of heather honeys did not show inhibitory activity toward the test microorganism.

Antibacterial activity of twenty-five samples of honey from different botanical origin was evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 was used as the resistant microorganism. pollen analysis revealed different botanical origins: Labiatae , rosemary, eucalyptus, heather [heaths] and multifloral. The pH and acidity values were in the normal range, except for four samples that showed acidity values over 40 mEq/kg, but none exhibited a state of fermentation. We have not found correlation between antibacterial activity and free acidity
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Hedtke-C; Etzold-E
Light microscopy of Brandenburg flower honeys. OT: Brandenburgische Blutenhonige im lichtmikroskopischen Bild.
Deutsches-Bienen-Journal. 1996, 4: 11, 11-14; Bj.
1996

Results are presented for pollen analysis of 200 honeys produced in the Brandenburg region, west of Berlin. On average, a honey contained 14 pollen types (range 4-25); altogether 73 pollen types were identified from 35 plant families. The most frequent pollens were from rape, followed by cornflower, maple, white clover and stone fruit species. The results are discussed. They reflect some of the changes in crops and wild flowers which have occurred since reunification of Germany. Of particular interest is the fact that 23 honeys contained both sunflower and phacelia pollens; this is a result of the increasing areas used for growing sunflowers and also 'set-aside'. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis; honey-bee-forage GE: Germany-; Brandenburg- BT: Western-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; OECD-Countries; Germany CC: QQ070; LL010; PP720 CD: Other-Produce; Beekeeping-and-Bees; Biological-Resources-Plant PT: Journal-article IS: 0943-2914 UD: 970416
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Helbling-A; Wuthrich-B
An unusual case of allergy to honey. OT: Ein ungewohnlicher Fall von Honigallergie.
Allergologie. 1987, 10: 7, 252-255; Bc.
1987

A patient who had exhibited mild allergy to pollen and had shown pharyngitis symptoms each time he ate honey, developed epigastric pains and an asthma attack after eating 3 teaspoonfuls of honey. A scratch-test showed an immediate sensitization to this particular honey. From a pollen analysis of the honey, it was calculated that 75% of its pollen came from sycamore (Acer) and 6% from dandelion (Taraxacum). RAST results showed that the patient had IgE antibodies specific to dandelion and mugwort [Artemisia ?] pollen.P. Walker. DE: Honey-; allergies-; Pollen-; Food-allergies OD: Taraxacum-; Man- BT: Compositae; Asterales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Homo; Hominidae; Primates; mammals; vertebrates; Chordata; animals CC: QQ070; VV130 CD: Other-Produce; Diet-and-Diet-related-Diseases PT: Journal-article IS: 0344-5062 UD: 950316 ______________________________

Jhansi,-P; Kalpana,-T-P; Ramanujam,-C-G-K
pollen analysis of rock bee summer honeys from the Prakasam district of the Andhra Pradesh, India.
Journal-of-Apicultural-Research. 1991; 30(1): 33-40 ; 10 ref.
1991

A pollen analysis was carried out on 6 summer honey samples collected from rock bee (Apis dorsata) combs in a tropical dry deciduous forest area of Andhra Pradesh, India. The samples (collected between 1982 and 1984) were all multifloral and contained 57 pollen types. Sources included: Cassia fistula, Terminalia alata, Bauhinia racemosa, Feronia elephantum, Lagerstroemia parviflora, Strychnos potatorum, Zizyphus xylopyrus, Phyllanthus sp., Soymida febrifuga, Syzygium cumini, Dalbergia latifolia and Caesalpinia bonduc. [From En summ.]SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Kerkvliet,-J-D; Beerlink,-J-G
pollen analysis of honeys from the coastal plain of Surinam.
Journal-of-Apicultural-Research. 1991; 30(1): 25-31 ; 11 ref.
1991

A pollen analysis of honeys from Surinam was carried out on 97 samples of honey obtained from 30 locations in the coastal plain of Surinam between Nov. 1984 and Feb. 1986. Important nectar sources were identified as Avicennia germinans, Pterocarpus officinalis, Piper sp., Triplaris surinamensis, Syzygium cumini and Ilex guianensis. The status of Cocos nucifera and other Palmae as nectar plant was not clear. A few other plants, including Solanum sp., Rhizophora mangle, a member of the Anacardiaceae (with Rhus-type pollen) and Tapirira guianensis, were identified as good local nectar sources. Pollen grains of Cecropia (a nectarless plant) were found in nearly all samples. [From En summ.]SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Kleinert-Giovannini-A; Imperatriz-Fonseca-VL; Ramalho-M; Eder-J (ed.); Rembold-H
Exploitation of floral resources by Plebeia saiqui Friese (Apidae, Meliponinae).
Chemistry-and-biology-of-social-insects. 1987, 156-157; Bd. PB: Verlag J. Peperny; Munich; German Federal Republic
1987

pollen analysis of pollen and honey samples taken from three colonies of P. saiqui in the Sao Paulo University Campus revealed 164 pollen types belonging to 52 families. Some of the most intensively foraged plant families had only a small number of species growing in the Campus gardens. The data suggest that P. saiqui has floral preferences, including Impatiens sultanii, Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus spp. and Archontophoenix.D.G. Lowe. DE: foraging- OD: TRIGONA- ID: Plebeia BT: Apidae; Hymenoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals CC: PP710 CD: Biological-Resources-Animal PT: Miscellaneous IB: 3-925995-01-3 UD: 950316
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Lakshmi-K; Suryanarayana-MC
Microscopical analysis of rock bee honeys from Nallamalai forest of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Journal-of-Palynology. 1997, 33: 1-2, 263-272; 3 ref.
1997

pollen analysis was conducted on four pressed honey samples from rock bees (Apis dorsata) collected from the Nallamalai forest of Andhra Pradesh. The two honey samples collected during the post-monsoon period were unifloral with Citrus sp. (45.04%) and Helicteres isora (59.50). The two summer honey samples were multifloral. Secondary pollen types in the 4 honey samples were: Ailanthus excelsa, Flacourtia sp., Spondias pinnata, Sterculia urens and Helianthus annuus. Ziziphus sp., Tridax procumbens, Coriandrum sativum, Mimosa hamata, Eleusine coracana, Ageratum conyzoides, Cyanotis sp., Tamarindus indica, Caesalpinia bonduc, Pterospermum xylocarpum and Pterolobium hexapetalum were represented in all the honey samples as important pollen types. DE: forests-; forest-trees; honey-bees; honey-; pollen-; pollen-analysis; pollen-plants; sunflowers-; tamarinds- OD: Cyanotis-; Ageratum-conyzoides; Eleusine-coracana; Mimosa-hamata; Coriandrum-sativum; Tridax-procumbens; Ziziphus-; Pterospermum-xylocarpum; Helianthus-annuus; Sterculia-urens; Spondias-pinnata; Flacourtia-; Ailanthus-excelsa; Helicteres-isora; Citrus-; Apis-dorsata; Caesalpinia-bonduc; Tamarindus-indica GE: India-; Andhra-Pradesh ID: Pterolobium; Pterolobium-hexapetalum BT: Commelinaceae; Commelinales; monocotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Ageratum; Asteraceae; Asterales; dicotyledons; Eleusine; Poaceae; Cyperales; Mimosa; Mimosoideae; Fabaceae; Fabales; Coriandrum; Apiaceae; Apiales; Tridax; Rhamnaceae; Rh
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Longhitano-N; Persano-Oddo-L; Pistorio-MP; Schembra-CP; Scibilia-GM
First contribution to the determination of the botanical and geographical origins of Iblei honeys. OT: Primo contributo alla determinazione dell'origine botanica e geografica di mieli Iblei.
Bollettino-dell'Accademia-Gioenia,-Catania,-Sci.-Nat. 1986, 19: 328, 41-49; Bb.
1986

pollen analysis of 47 honeys from the Iblei region of Sicily showed that the most important nectar sources were Thymus, Citrus, Ononis, Carduus, Vicia, Lotus, Hedysarum, Trilofium repens, T. pratense, Echium, Cerinthe and Borago. The presence of Ononis natrix can be regarded as an indicator species for the Iblei region.Author. DE: Honey-; pollen-analysis; HONEY-BEE-FORAGE GE: Italy-; Sicily- BT: Southern-Europe; Europe; Mediterranean-Countries; Italy CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce PT: Journal-article UD: 950316
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Lukacs,-G
On the applicability and usefulness of the pollen examination in honey.
Elelmiszervizsgalati-Kozlemenyek. 1997; 43(3): 198-207 ; 4 ref.
1997

Use of pollen analysis to assess quality and botanical origin of honey is discussed. Methods used for examination of pollen grains present in honey are described, and characteristics (shape, colour, surface structure, etc.) important for identification of the botanical origin of pollen grains are discussed. It is suggested that examination of pollen grains present in honey is a useful supplement to chromatographic analysis.SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Martinez-Gomez,-M-E; Guerra-Hernandez,-E; Montilla-Gomez,-J-Y; Molins-Marin,-J-L
Physicochemical analysis of Spanish commercial Eucalyptus honeys.
Journal-of-Apicultural-Research. 1993; 32(3/4): 121-126 ; 23 ref.
1993

The physicochemical characteristics of 25 samples of commercial eucalyptus honey, bought off the shelf, were analysed; 35 physicochemical parameters indicative of maturity, purity, quality deterioration and adulteration were measured, including contents of sugars and minerals, total N, proline, water content, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity, colour, ash, insoluble solids and electrical conductivity. pollen analysis was also carried out. Samples contained a mean of 18 pollen types (range 14-27); the 64% of samples which contained >70% Eucalyptus pollen were considered to be unifloral. In 92% of samples, Eucalyptus was the most abundant pollen (>45% of total pollen). The remaining 2 samples contained <20% Eucalyptus pollen. Maturity, purity, deterioration and adulteration criteria indicated that the quality of the honeys was good. The 2 samples with low Eucalyptus pollen content showed low values for the length of the main wavelength in spectrophotometric analysis and some differences in mineral concn. [From En summ.]SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Miranda-Chaves-SA-de; Chaves-MSA-de
pollen analysis of honey from the Secretario region, Petropolis, RJ [Brazil]. OT: Analise polinica do mel da Regiao de Secretario, Petropolis, RJ.
Revista-Brasileira-de-Apicultura. 1995, 5: 11, 18-20; Bj.
1995

Pollen analyses of honey were used to establish a flowering calendar for nectar and pollen plants in this area of Brazil. DE: honey-bee-forage; honey-; pollen-analysis GE: Brazil- BT: Developing-Countries; Latin-America; South-America; America; Threshold-Countries CC: LL010; PP720 CD: Beekeeping-and-Bees; Biological-Resources-Plant PT: Journal-article UD: 980716 ______________________________

Mkrtchyan,-E-Yu; Builova,-L-A; Ostretsova,-N-G; Strel'tsova,-S-A
The natural honey identification in dairy products.
Molochnaya-Promyshlennost. 2002; (8): 45-46 ; 5 ref.
2002

Authenticity testing of honey used in dairy products is discussed, with particular reference to colorimetric determination of diastase (amylase) as a means of determining honey purity in a range of dairy products. Use of pollen analysis and total sugars/reducing sugars ratio as indicators of honey authenticity is also considered.SC: P Milk-and-dairy-products
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Molan,-P-C; Smith,-I-M; Reid,-G-M
A comparison of the antibacterial activities of some New Zealand honeys.
Journal-of-Apicultural-Research. 1988; 27(4): 252-256 ; 23 ref.
1988

Sixty-four samples of monofloral honeys were diluted to 1/4, 1/8 or 1/16 original strength and tested in an agar well diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity was calculated in terms of mean weighted sum of inhibitory zones. Significant differences in activity were found between different kinds of honey (P < 0.0001). The more active honeys were kanuka, manuka and penny royal, followed by nodding thistle, kamahi and buttercup. Honeys with lowest activity were rewa-rewa, clover, heather, tawari, rata, towai, thyme and blue borage. pollen analysis of honey was not carried out, which may account for some inconsistencies in results due to inaccurate identification of honeys.SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Molan-PC; Ashurst-PR (ed.); Dennis-MJ
Authenticity of honey.
Food-authentication. 1996, 259-303; Bd. PB: Blackie Academic & Professional; London; UK
1996

This is a comprehensive review of the subject, with 136 references. The introduction describes the composition and characteristics of honey, its sources and processing by honey bees, and its processing by beekeepers. The main problems affecting the authenticity of honey are then described. They are: adulteration with water, sugar and syrups; feeding sugar and syrups to bees; artificial 'honey' produced from manufactured syrups; claims concerning 'raw' or 'natural' honey, or its botanical or geographical source, or its antibacterial properties. The methods used for determining authenticity are then reviewed. These include the detection of heating of honey, the determination of antibacterial activity, and the detection of adulteration with sucrose, invert sugar, corn syrup and cane sugar. pollen analysis of honey can indicate its geographical and botanical origins, and its principles and limitations are described. A honey's floral source can also be investigated by analyses of amino acids and trace organics. Microscopical and chemical analyses can also show if a honey had been derived from honeydew sources. Uncertainties resulting from the large natural variation in the composition and characteristics of honey are discussed. DE: honey-; adulteration-; analytical-methods; pollen-analysis; provenance-; characteristics- CC: QQ070; QQ200; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Contamination,-Residues-and-Toxicology; Food-Composition-and-Quality PT: Miscellaneous IB: 0-7514-0341-5 UD: 9704
______________________________

Munuera-Giner-M; Carrion-Garcia-JS
pollen analysis of Citrus honeys of the Segura basin (Alicante and Murcia). OT: Analisis polinico de mieles de azahar de la Vega del Segura (Alicante y Murcia).
Alimentaria. 1994, 31: 258, 37-42; Bc.
1994

A total of 18 honeys from this area of SE Spain were analysed. Altogether 66 pollen types were identified; a honey contained 34 types on average. In all samples, Citrus pollen constituted more than 25% of total pollen. Brassicaceae and Plantago pollens were common; Helianthemum pollen content was > 13% and Oleaceae pollen > 12%. Contents of honeydew indicators were low. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis OD: Plantago-; Helianthemum-; Oleaceae-; Citrus- GE: Spain- ID: Brassicaeae BT: Plantaginaceae; Plantaginales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Cistaceae; Violales; Scrophulariales; Rutaceae; Sapindales; Southern-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce PT: Journal-article IS: 0300-5755 UD: 970416
______________________________

Ortiz-Valbuena-A; Fernandez-Maeso-MC; Sabra-Munoz-de-la-Torre-E
Principal characteristics of honey from La Alcarria [Spain]. OT: Principales caracteristicas de la miel de La Alcarria.
1996, 94 pp.; Bd. PB: Junta de Comunidades de Castilla le Mancha; Marchamalo; Spain
1996

Results of this study of 88 honey samples from La Alcarria are taken from the first author's doctoral thesis (1982). They include details of physicochemical parameters and pollen analysis. DE: honey-; composition-; characteristics-; pollen-analysis; physicochemical-properties GE: Spain- BT: Southern-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality PT: Thesis; Book UD: 970101
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Pasha,-M-K; Ghosh,-D-R; Roy,-S-K
A mellitopalynological study of Sunderban honey.
Bangladesh-Journal-of-Botany. 1991; 20(1): 105-107 ; 5 ref.DT: Journal-Article
1991

Investigations were carried out to find the botanical origin, eco-vegetational distribution of honey plants, season of production, unifloral vs. multifloral honey, and consistency of colour and taste of Sunderban honey. 6 samples collected from hives in 3 eco-vegetational zones and 6 collected from traders outside Sunderban were subjected to pollen analysis. The pollen spectrum of each type of honey is presented. Approx. 60% of the Sunderban honey originated from the goran plant (Ceriops decandra) and 20% from khalshi plant (Aegiceras corniculatum). Samples collected from the traders were all found to be of the goran type. All samples collected were yellowish in colour, due to the colour of the dominant pollen grains. This type of honey never crystallized at room temp. The unifloral khalshi-type was highly transparent and crystallized gradually at room temp. but quickly at 4°C.SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
______________________________

Persano-Oddo-L; Festuccia-N; Quaranta-M
Italian rosemary honey (Rosmarinus officinalis L.): melissopalynological and organoleptic features.OT: Il miele di rosmarino (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) prodotto in Italia: caratteristiche melissopalinologiche e organolettiche.
Ape-Nostra-Amica. 1998, 20: 1, 6-20; Bj.
1998

pollen analysis of 38 rosemary honeys indicated that only 21 could be regarded as unifloral. These, mostly from Puglia and Marettino Island (Sicily), had an R. officinalis pollen content of more than 10% and less than 20 000 pollen grains/10 g. The delicate flavour and aroma of this honey can be spoiled by the presence of extraneous nectars with a strong flavour; the main types in Italian rosemary honeys are Trigonella, Rhamnus, Erica and Arbutus. All the samples, except those from Sardinia, contained Leguminosae, Rhamnus, Rosaceae, Cruciferae [Brassicaceae] and Myrtaceae. Samples from different areas were characterized by different combinations of pollens. A total of 76 pollen types were identified
.______________________________

Piasenzotto-L; Gracco-L; Conte-L
Solid phase microextraction (SPME) applied to honey quality control.
Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture. 2003, 83: 10, 1037-1044; 22 ref.
2003

The assessment of the botanical origin of unifloral honeys is an important application in food control. The current official methods mainly use pollen analysis. The aim of this paper is to present an SPME analytical approach to the study of honey volatiles. Honey samples (n=40) obtained from hive sites in different regions of Italy were analysed. The samples had 6 different botanical origins: citrus (5), chestnut (10), eucalyptus (8), lime tree (11), thyme (2) and dandelion (4). Melissopalynological analysis was also performed. Identification of volatile compounds was carried out by SPME/GC/MS analysis, and quantitative evaluation was done by SPME/GC/FID (flame ionization detection) analysis for compounds with well-resolved peaks. Using the SPME method, all samples with the same botanical origin gave remarkably similar GC profiles. Some volatile compounds were found only in specific floral source honey samples and thus could be interesting for use as markers.
______________________________

Pridal,-A; Vorlova,-L
Honey and its physical parameters.
Czech-Journal-of-Animal-Science. 2002; 47(10): 439-444 ; 15 ref.
2002

Classification of honey according to its botanical origin, using pollen microscopic analysis and optical rotation, was evaluated. 55 honey samples from 14 suppliers in the Czech Republic and from various beekeepers were analysed for moisture (refractive index), aw, electrical conductivity (EC), specific rotation (SR) and botanical origin (qualitative and quantitative microscopic pollen analysis - melissopalynology). Honeys were classified as blossom honey (unifloral or multifloral), honeydew honey or compound honey. 5 monofloral Robinia honeys had EC values of 10.3-13.8 mS/m and SR values of -16.9 to -13.9; 7 other monofloral honeys had corresponding values of 13.3-28.4 and -22.2 to -12.0; 16 multifloral honeys had 14-43.9 and -18.9 to -9.6; 21 compound honeys had 41.0-109.8 and -9.9 to 3.8; and 6 honeydew honeys had 96.6-111.6 and -1.0 to 20.4. Results indicated that for correct botanical classification of honey, EC, SR and microscopic analysis of pollen would be required.SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Ramalho,-M; Guibu,-L-S; Giannini,-T-C; Kleinert-Giovannini,-A; Imperatriz-Fonseca,-V-L
Characterization of some southern Brazilian honey and bee plants through pollen analysis.
Journal-of-Apicultural-Research. 1991; 30(2): 81-86 ; 28 ref.
1991

Over a period of 3 yr, 256 samples of honey from the states of Sao Paulo and Parana, southern Brazil, were characterized by pollen analysis. The honeys were classified as Eucalyptus (54 samples), Citrus (49) and wild honey (153) according to information provided by beekeepers. Pollen types were compared with reference slides of pollens from plants flowering in the area. Besides Citrus and Eucalyptus spp., pollens found in Sao Paulo honey included Paspalum, Cecropia, and Syagrus, whereas pollens of Ilex, Campomanesia, Allophylus and Matayba spp. predominated in Parana honey. The importance of some spp., whose pollens may be under-represented in Brazilian honey, as bee forage plants is discussed.SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Ramanujam-CGK; Kalpana-TP
pollen analysis of honeys from Kondevaram apiaries of East Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh.
Biovigyanam. 1993, 19: 1-2, 11-19; Bb.
1993

Pollen analyses of 4 honeys harvested from Apis cerana colonies in winter, showed that 3 were unifloral honeys from Sapindus emarginatus (71-84% of total pollen); the fourth contained 35% S. emarginatus pollen. Five summer samples that were analysed were all unifloral honeys: 3 from Cocos nucifera (48-58% of total pollen), and 2 from Borassus flabellifer (63%, 77%). Apart from these reliable nectar sources, other useful species in this area are Syzygium cumini, Phoenix sylvestris, Prosopis juliflora, Guazuma ulmifolia and Sesbania sp. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis; honey-bee-forage; coconuts- OD: Sapindus-emarginatus; Cocos-nucifera; Borassus-flabellifer; Syzygium-cumini; Phoenix-sylvestris; Prosopis-juliflora; Guazuma-ulmifolia; Sesbania-; Apis-cerana GE: India-; Andhra-Pradesh BT: Sapindus; Sapindaceae; Sapindales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Cocos; Arecaceae; Arecales; monocotyledons; Borassus; Syzygium; Myrtaceae; Myrtales; Phoenix; Prosopis; Mimosoideae; Fabaceae; Fabales; Guazuma; Sterculiaceae; Malvales; Papilionoideae; Apis; Apidae; Hymenoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; South-Asia; Asia; Commonwealth-of-Nations; Developing-Countries; India CC: QQ070; LL010 CD: Other-Produce; Beekeeping-and-Bees PT: Journal-article IS: 0250-507X UD: 970416
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Russo-Almeida-PA; Paiva-J
pollen analysis of honey from the transmontane zone of Terre Quente. OT: Analise polinica do mel da Terra Quente transmontana.
Apicultor. 1996, 4: 13, 33-42; Bj.
1996

Detailed results are presented for 31 honey samples from this area of Portugal. The honeys were classified as unifloral honey from lavender or as multifloral honey. Over 60 pollen types in 29 families were identified, and the average per honey was 28 (range 21-42). Lavandula pedunculata pollen was present in every sample, max. 32% of total. Papilionaceae pollens were very common (present in every sample, 14-52%) and certain pollens were typical of a particular area. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis; honey-bee-forage OD: Lavandula-; Lamiales- GE: Portugal- BT: Lamiaceae; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Mediterranean-Region; Developed-Countries; EFTA; European-Union-Countries; OECD-Countries; Southern-Europe; Europe CC: QQ070; QQ500 CD: Other-Produce; Food-Composition-and-Quality PT: Journal-article UD: 970716 ______________________________

Sawyer-R
Honeybees in the Koran and in medicine.
1988, 115 pp.; Bd. PB: Cardiff Academic Press; Cardiff; UK
1988

This book forms a practical introductory guide to melissopalynology which will be of use to students, beekeepers and those engaged in the honey industry. The emphasis is on honeys of UK origin, but pollens and honeys of particular interest from other countries are also dealt with. The method of pollen identification employed is based on that described in the author's Pollen identification for beekeepers [AA 1271/82]. The apparatus, materials and techniques necessary for carrying out pollen analysis are described, and a key to the features of the pollen grains from 67 taxa is given. The identification of honeydew elements is also covered. Some floral honeys (acacia [Robinia pseudoacacia], clover, heather, lime, orange, rape, and speciality honeys from the USA) are described in detail. The pollen contents of honeys from various geographical areas and countries are described briefly, and an index of 'pollen in honey related to geographical origin' is presented. The use of pollen coefficients ( no. grains/10 g honey) in the assessment of honey, particularly for legislative and certification purposes, is described. A section of 125 photographs illustrates the pollen grains of the 67 taxa in the earlier key, types of honeydew element, other particles found in honey, selected pollen grains from countries other than UK, and pollens from selected named honeys. There are botanical and common name indexes and a list of 34 references.D.G. Lowe. DE: Honey-; pollen-analysis GE: UK- BT: B
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Schneider-A; Horn-H; Hammes-WP
The occurrence of osmophilic yeasts in honey.OT: Zum Vorkommen osmophiler Hefen im Honig.
Deutsche-Lebensmittel-Rundschau. 2003, 99: 8, 310-319; 43 ref.

Four samples of fermented honey from different geographical and botanical origins were analysed concerning their chemical, physical and microbiological parameters such as moisture content, water activity, electrical conductivity, pH, free acidity, formol content, sugar spectrum, HMF (hydroxymethylfurfural) content, glucose oxidase activity, and counts of yeasts (osmophilic/osmotolerant yeasts). The botanical origin of the honeys was determined by means of pollen analysis. Results showed that all honeys, except one sample with high moisture content, were characterized by chemical and physical parameters that are indicative for normal qualities and would permit to distinguish them from non-fermented honeys. The numbers of yeasts could not be used as a characteristic parameter for fermented honeys. Remarkably, even honeys with apparently inconvenient conditions for microbiological growth such as low water activity and nitrogen content or high antimicrobial activity were fermented. Twenty yeast strains were isolated from the honey samples and were identified using morphological and physiological parameters. All strains were identified as Zygosaccharomyces rouxii or its imperfect form Candida mogii .
______________________________

Seijo-MC; Aira-MJ; Iglesias-MI; Jato-MV
Foraging activity of the honey bee on Actinidia deliciosa Chev. as shown by pollen analysis. OT: L'activite d'affouragement de l'abeille domestique sur Actinidia deliciosa Chev. comprise a la lumiere de l'analyse pollinique.
Grana. 1994, 33: 4-5, 286-291; Bb.
1994

In SW Galicia, Spain, 22 Apis mellifera colonies were placed near flowering A. deliciosa; pollen traps were fitted to 2 hives and their contents were analysed. Results showed that the bees collected pollen more actively in the morning than after 14.00 h. Although they usually brought in some Actinidia pollen, especially during the first days of flowering, much pollen was from other species (e.g. Castanea sativa, Taraxacum officinale, Cistus sp., Sinapis sp.). Examination of pollen grains in the honey sacs and intestines of returning nectar collectors showed that the bees preferred mainly Eucalyptus globulus and Castanea sativa. It is concluded that A. deliciosa is not particularly attractive to foragers. Levels of Actinidia pollen in the air reached 30 grains/m3, and wind pollination is probably important. DE: beneficial-insects; foraging-; honey-bees; pollen-; chestnuts-; kiwifruits- OD: Apis-mellifera; Castanea-sativa; Taraxacum-officinale; Cistus-; Sinapis-; Eucalyptus-globulus; Actinidia-deliciosa BT: Apis; Apidae; Hymenoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; Castanea; Fagaceae; Fagales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Taraxacum; Asteraceae; Asterales; Cistaceae; Violales; Brassicaceae; Capparidales; Eucalyptus; Myrtaceae; Myrtales; Actinidia; Actinidiaceae; Theales CC: LL010; LL300 CD: Beekeeping-and-Bees; Animal-Behaviour PT: Journal-article IS: 0017-3134 UD: 970101
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Sengonca-M; Tort-N
Pollen. 2. OT: Polen. 2.
Ege-Universitesi-Ziraat-Fakultesi-Dergisi. 1995, 32: 3, 173-179; 16 ref.
1995

This examination of the subject is concluded under the following headings: bees and pollen; plant reproduction and pollen; pollen in human nutrition and in pollen analysis; pollen in honey; pollen in geology and archaeology; and criminology and pollen. DE: palynology-; pollen-analysis; honey-bees; pollination-; pollen- OD: plants- CC: FF020; FF060 CD: Plant-Breeding-and-Genetics; Plant-Physiology-and-Biochemistry PT: Journal-article UD: 970416
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Serra-Bonvehi,-J; Ventura-Coll,-F
Physico-chemical properties, composition and pollen spectrum of French lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.) honey produced in Spain.
Zeitschrift-fuer-Lebensmittel-Untersuchung-und-Forschung. 1993; 196(6): 511-517 ; 41 ref.
1993

Palynological and physicochemical properties of 26 samples of French lavender (Lavandula stoechas) honey commercially produced in Spain were defined. Each sample was examined to determine total pollen content, % of L. stoechas pollen and pollen spectrum. On the basis of pollen analysis, 14 samples were excluded as they were of different botanical origin (Echium spp.). In total, 67 different pollen types were identified. The sugar spectrum showed low % of trisaccharides and sucrose. Enzymic activity was lower than that found in other unifloral Spanish honeys. A min. of 10% L. stoechas pollen and max. of 30% Echium sp. pollen are suggested requirements for characterization of this honey.SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Singh-MP; Verma-LR; Mattu-VK
Pollen spectrum of some honeys of the north-east Himalayas as determinant of honey bee forage.
Indian-Bee-Journal. 1994, 56: 1-2, 37-52; Bj.
1994

pollen analysis of 21 honey samples from 10 areas showed that dominant pollens came from several plants including Brassica sp., Wendlandia sp., Solanum sp., Ageratum sp., Clematis sp., Adhatoda sp., Mussaenda sp., and Helianthus sp. Most of the honeys were unifloral. A table of bee forage plants lists 83 species belonging to 46 families together with flowering period for each, value as a source of nectar and/or pollen, and other uses. DE: honey-bee-forage; honey-; pollen-analysis GE: India- BT: South-Asia; Asia; Commonwealth-of-Nations; Developing-Countries CC: LL010; PP720; QQ070 CD: Beekeeping-and-Bees; Biological-Resources-Plant; Other-Produce PT: Journal-article IS: 0019-4425 UD: 970716
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Sodre-G-da-S; Marchini-LC; Moreti-AC-de-CC; Carvalho-CAL-de; de-CC-Moreti-AC; de-Carvalho-CAL
pollen analysis in honey produced by the Northern coast of the state of Bahia.OT: Analises polinicas de meis de Apis mellifera L. 1758 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) do litoral norte do Estado da Bahia.
Revista-de-Agricultura-Piracicaba. 2001, 76: 2, 215-225; 19 ref.

The analysis of pollen in honey produced on the northern coast of the state of Bahia, Brazil is presented (January 1999 to June 2000). 27 types of pollen were found.
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Sunirmal-Chanda; Chanda-S; Nordenstam-B (ed.); El-Ghazaly-G (ed.); Kassas-M
A memorable journey from pollen analysis to pollen morphology.
Plant-systematics-for-the-21st-century:-Proceedings-from-a-symposium-held-at-the-Wenner-Gren-Centre,-Stockholm,-Sweden,-September-1998. 2000, 193-200;
1998

This chapter describes 4 applied approaches influenced by the work of Professor Gunnar Erdtman on pollen-based research. The studies are: (1) pollen analysis in the understanding of sea-level change in coastal South Bengal during the Holocene; (2) pollen morphology in systematics; (3) aerobiological study in relation to respiratory allergy; and (4) the role of pollen in honey research (melissopalynology).
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Szabo-TI; Lefkovitch-LP
pollen analysis of honeys from the northwest of Buenos Aires province (Argentina). OT: Analyse pollinique des miels du nord-ouest de la province de Buenos Aires (Republique argentine).
Apidologie. 1988, 19: 3, 259-273; Bj.
1988

A study of the factors affecting honey production was conducted using the fourth generation of 10 queen families kept in isolated groups of 97 colonies in northern Alberta and 90 in southern Alberta. Yearly selection was based on a short term colony gain at the beginning of honey flow. Nineteen morphological and 18 colony characteristics were compared. The two strains i.e. northern and southern, were different in 8 morphological and 14 colony traits. Honey production was significantly positively correlated with autumn colony weight, worker brood area in May, viability of eggs, disease resistance or hygienic behaviour of bees, spring Nosema counts (negative correlation), forewing area, hindwing area, femur, tibia and metatarsus length, third sternite length and wax mirror length X wax mirror width. The largest canonical correlation of these factors with total honey production, first honey harvest and second honey harvest, was 0.645, which was significantly different from zero. These results suggest that selection of worker morphological characteristics can be used to improve honeybee stock. Author. DE: HONEY-BEES; breeding-; HONEY-BEE-COLONIES; honey-getting-capacity; characteristics-; WORKER-HONEY-BEES; morphology- BT: Apis; Apidae; Hymenoptera; insects; arthropods; invertebrates; animals; honey-bees CC: LL010; LL200 CD: Beekeeping-and-Bees; Animal-Breeding-and-Genetics PT: Journal-article IS: 0044-8435 UD: 950316 ______________________________

Terrab-A; Diez-MJ; Heredia-FJ
Palynological, physico-chemical and colour characterization of Moroccan honeys: I. River red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh) honey.
International-Journal-of-Food-Science-and-Technology. 2003, 38: 4, 379-386; 33 ref.
2003

The melissopalynological, physico-chemical and colour characteristics of Eucalyptus honeys from Morocco were studied. It is generally accepted that a minimum content of 70% of Eucalyptus pollen is necessary to classify an Eucalyptus honey as unifloral. Twenty-eight physico-chemical and five colour parameters were measured, including the content of sugars and minerals, proline, water content, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity, ash, electrical conductivity, colour coordinates (L*, a*, b*), chroma (C*ab) and hue angle (hab). pollen analysis was included, and samples contained a mean of six pollen types (range 2-12). The majority of the samples (75%) contained more than 90% Eucalyptus pollen. The presence of Quercus, Plantago and Thymelaea pollen allows the differentiation of these honeys from those with a different geographical origin. Physico-chemical analysis showed that there was a low percentage of sucrose (x=0.01%) and trisaccharides. Mineral analysis showed a low percentage of Mg (x=25.99 ppm) and K (x=205 ppm), while electrical conductivity (x=721 µS cm-1) and diastase activity (x=39.05 °Gothe) showed medium-high values. The colour parameters lightness (L*) and chroma (C*ab) showed relatively low values.
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Terrab-A; Diez-MJ; Valdes-B
pollen analysis of honeys from the regions of Ouazzane and Atlantic Coast (northeast Morocco).OT: Analisis polinico de mieles en las regiones de Ouazzane y costa Atlantica (noroeste de Marruecos).
Acta-Botanica-Malacitana. 2001, 26: 79-88; 33 ref.
2001

Thirteen honey samples from Ouazzane and Atlantic Coast, Morocco, were analysed. A total of 63 plant species was identified. Nectar was the main source for honey. Six of the honey samples were monofloral from Eucalyptus sp., Lythrum sp., Leucojum sp. and Citrus sp.
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Terrab-A; Escudero-ML; Gonzalez-Miret-ML; Heredia-FJ
Colour characteristics of honeys as influenced by pollen grain content: a multivariate study.
Journal-of-the-Science-of-Food-and-Agriculture. 2004, 84: 4, 380-386; 28 ref.
2004

A chromatic analysis by tristimulus colorimetry and a pollen analysis (pollen grains contained in each honey sample, considering their volume and geometrical shape) were carried out on 33 Eucalyptus unifloral honeys; the colour of the pollen grains was also considered. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and partial least squares regression (PLSR) were used to establish equations relating the chromatic variables to the pollen data, i.e. the number and morphology of the pollen grains, thus allowing the prediction of the ultimate colour from the botanical characteristics. The results obtained show that lightness (L*) is significantly (p < 0.05) related to the pollen type Olea europaea; on the other hand, the variable that better relates to the chroma (Cab*) is the Zea mays pollen type.
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Terrab-A; Heredia-FJ; Diez-MJ; Valdes-B
Palynologycal and physicochemical characterisation of unifloral Apiaceae honeys produced in Morocco.OT: Caracterizacion polinica y fisico-quimica de mieles de Apiaceae producidas en Marruecos.
Boletin-de-la-Real-Sociedad-Espanola-de-Historia-Natural,-Seccion-Biologica. 2003, 98: 1-4, 21-28; 36 ref.
2003

The melissopalynologycal, physicochemical and chromatic characteristics of Apiaceae honeys from Morocco were studied (two of Ammi visnaga, two of Eryngium campestre and three of Ridolfia segetum). In accordance with most authors, a minimum of 45% of Apiaceae pollen is necessary to consider a honey as unifloral. Thirty physicochemical parameters were measured. pollen analysis was also carried out. One sample belonged to class I of Maurizio, four to class II and two to class III were found. In all the samples some honeydew indicator elements were detected, which ranged between 1200 and 8600 EIM, and the honey samples contained 53-73% pollen of Apiaceae. The presence of Lythrum salicaria and Eucalyptus pollen was frequent. From the physicochemical point of view this honey type is characterized by medium values for pH, HMF, electrical conductivity, fructose, glucose and maltose; by the medium to high values for free acidity and diastase activity; and by very high values for K. Finally, from the chromatic point of view, Apiaceae honeys show medium to low values of lightness (L*) and chroma (C*ab).
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Terrab-A; Valdes-B; Diez-MJ
pollen analysis of honeys from north-western Morocco: the Targuist region.
Lazaroa. 2001, 22: 51-58; 29 ref.
2001

Sixteen honey samples provided by amateur beekeepers from Targuist, Morocco were analysed. A total of 43 pollinic types belonging to 28 families were identified using microscopic analysis. Results showed that nectar was the main source of honey and that two samples belong to Maurizio's Class V, four to Class IV, two to Class III and one to Class II. Two of the honey samples were unifloral Mentha species.
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Terrab-A; Valdes-B; Diez-MJ
pollen analysis of honeys from the Mamora forest region (NW Morocco).
Grana. 2003, 42: 1, 47-54; 35 ref.
2003

The present work refers to the pollen analysis of 35 Moroccan honey samples from the Mamora forest region. The samples were directly provided by the beekeepers, all professionals. The quantitative analysis showed that nectar is the main honey source in the samples studied, and that most honeys have a medium-low presence of botanical elements (BEN). The qualitative analysis of the samples showed the presence of 54 taxa belonging to 29 families, and 31 of the samples were unifloral: 24 of eucalyptus, 3 of orange, 2 of Loeflingia, 1 of mint and 1 of Ridolfia segetum. The eucalyptus honeys of the studied region are characterized by their high content in pollen grains (NGP; x=180000) and their low honeydew indicator elements content (HDE; x=4000); Plantago f. (present in 70% of the samples), Quercus f. and Brassicaceae (50%) and Ceratonia siliqua (30%) could be mentioned among the characteristic accompanying species of this honey type.
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Valle-A; Aramayo-E; Andrada-A; Gill-M; Lamberto-S
Honey pollen analysis from three coastal areas in the south of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.OT: Analisis polinico de las mieles de tres partidos con litoral maritimo del sur de la Provincia de Benos Aires. Argentina.
IDESIA. 2000, 18: 33-40; 32 ref.
2000

pollen analysis was carried out on 19 honey samples, collected during 1997-98 from the districts of Coronel Dorrego, Tres Arroyos and San Cayetano. Sample processing as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed. Fifty-nine morphological types were identified to the closest possible taxon. Dominating pollen types were Eucalyptus spp. (E. camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. viminalis), Melilotus spp. (M. albus [M. alba], M. indicus [M. indica], M. officinalis), and Helianthus annuus. Sixteen samples were unifloral; nine of H. annuus, three of Eucalyptus spp., three of Melilotus spp., and one of Lotus spp. (L. corniculatus, L. tenuis). Asteraceae and Fabaceae were the most represented families.
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Valle-AF; Andrada-AC; Aramayo-EM; Lamberto-SA
pollen analysis of honeys from southwest Buenos Aires province, Argentina. OT: Analisis polinico de las mieles del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Investigacion-Agraria,-Produccion-y-Proteccion-Vegetales. 1995, 10: 3, 375-383; Ba.
1995

Pollen analyses were carried out on 28 honey samples from 4 districts in this province. The dominant pollen types amongst the 28 identified were Eucalyptus spp., Centaurea spp., Diplotaxis tenuifolia and Helianthus annuus. Of the 17 samples considered to be unifloral, 15 were of Eucalyptus spp. DE: honey-; honey-bee-forage; pollen-analysis GE: Argentina- BT: Threshold-Countries; Developing-Countries; Latin-America; South-America; America CC: QQ070; LL010 CD: Other-Produce; Beekeeping-and-Bees PT: Journal-article UD: 980116
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Warakomska-Z
Pollen contents of some honeys originating from Wielkopolska region.
Pszczelnicze-Zeszyty-Naukowe. 1996, 40: 2, 89-98; Bj.
1996

pollen analysis of 20 honey samples showed that some were correctly described as unifloral honeys: 4 from heather (Calluna), 3 from Acacia, 2 from rape and one from lime (Tilia). The pollen contents of 4 other honeys described as unifloral did not meet the Polish standard. The 6 multifloral honeys contained a range of pollen types, including pollens of Cruciferae and Leguminosae species; in 2 of the honeys, the secondary pollens were from Salix and Robinia. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis GE: Poland- BT: Central-Europe; Europe; Developed-Countries CC: QQ070 CD: Other-Produce PT: Journal-article UD: 980416
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Wen-HweiMei; Chern-JiingChuan; Chen-SuHwa; Wen-HM; Chern-JC; Chen-SH
Quality survey of commercial honey products.
Journal-of-Food-and-Drug-Analysis. 1995, 3: 4, 295-305; Bc.
1995

The 20 samples of commercial honey analysed varied widely in their composition. Water content varied from 14.7% to 23.6% and total reducing sugars from 37.8% to 81.5% (glucose 17.1-36.2%, fructose 20.7-46.8%). Niacin content was 11 ppm, but there were only trace amounts (< 2 ppm) of vitamins B1 and B2 and pantothenic acid. The contents of K, Ca and Na were 533, 59 and 28 ppm, respectively, whilst Mg, Fe and Zn were present only in trace amounts. HMF content varied widely, from 3.0 ppm to 168.4 ppm. pollen analysis indicated that about 30% of the samples were adulterated with sugar syrups or other products. There was no contamination with coliform bacteria. About 5% of samples contained tetracycline residues. DE: water-content; sugars-; glucose-; fructose-; HMF-; vitamins-; minerals-; pollen-analysis; adulteration-; honey-; composition-; quality- GE: Taiwan- ID: tetracyline
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Zaitoun,-S; Al-Majeed-Ghzawi,-A; Al-Malah,-K-I-M; Abu-Jdayil,-B
Rheological properties of selected light colored Jordanian honey.
International-Journal-of-Food-Properties. 2001; 4(1): 139-148 ; 7 ref.
2001

Rheological properties of 4 types of light coloured Jordanian honey (apple, besromia, citrus, ziziphus) were examined. Honey types were identified by pollen analysis of the nectar source, moisture content was determined indirectly by refractometry and a rotational concentric cylinder viscometer was used to measure rheological flow properties. Apparent viscosity was measured both as a function of shear rate and of time, at a constant shear rate of 2.2 s-1. All flow curves (shear rate vs. shear stress), obtained at 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40°C, obeyed Newton's law of viscosity, with the exception of apple honey at 20°C. Apparent viscosity decreased with increasing temp. and moisture content; the temp. dependency followed the Arrhenius model and an exponential fit was used to describe the relationship between viscosity and moisture content. Time dependent flow properties, determined by examination of viscosity vs. time data (0-2000 s at the above temp.) revealed no evidence of apparent thixotropic or rheopectic behaviour. Results suggest that honey is a Newtonian fluid that shows time-independent behaviour.SC: L Sugars-syrups-and-starches
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Zoratti-ML
Mountain honeys produced in Friuli-Venezia Giulia. OT: Friuli-Venezia Giulia: valorizzare i pregi dei mieli di montagna.
Ape-Nostra-Amica. 1996, 18: 4, 4-8; Bj.
1996

The pollen spectrum of honeys produced in this mountainous area of NE Italy was determined by pollen analysis of 26 honeys, most of which were multifloral. The pollen spectrum was characterized by Castanea, Rubus, Rhododendron, Lotus, Trifolium, Helianthemum and Carduus. DE: honey-; pollen-analysis; honey-bee-forage OD: Castanea-; Rubus-; Rhododendron-; Lotus-; Trifolium-; Carduus-; Helianthemum- GE: Italy- BT: Fagaceae; Fagales; dicotyledons; angiosperms; Spermatophyta; plants; Rosaceae; Rosales; Ericaceae; Ericales; Papilionoideae; Fabaceae; Fabales; Asteraceae; Asterales; Cistaceae; Violales; Developed-Countries; European-Union-Countries; Mediterranean-Region; OECD-Countries; Southern-Europe; Europe CC: QQ070; LL010 CD: Other-Produce; Beekeeping-and-Bees PT: Journal-article UD: 970101

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